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Médaille d'Italie: CM.1459-2009

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Object information

Current Location: In storage

Maker(s)

Mint: Paris
Ruler: Napoleon III (1852-70)
Artist: Barre, Albert-Désiré
Mint: Colmar, Paris

Entities

Categories

Description

Long before the so-called `year of Revolutions', 1848, there had been political factions urging the unification of the disparate Italian states, but the Austrian Empire, which ruled Lombardy and Venetia, had successfully repressed several risings. The rulers of Sardinia cherished the ambition of leading the unification process, and therefore in 1858 the Sardinian Prime Minister, Camillo Benso di Cavour, and Emperor Napoléon III of France concluded an alliance against Austrian rule in the Italian Peninsula. Border provocations led Austria to demand Sardinian disarmament in 1859, and after this was refused war was joined in late April.
The Austrian leadership did not join battle quickly enough to prevent the French reinforcing the Sardinians as per their alliance, and thereafter the Franco-Sardinian forces had the upper hand in combat despite being outnumbered. Increasing German disapproval however led Napoléon to seek an armistice, without Sardinia's approval. The resulting treaty, signed on 11 July 1859, ceded Lombardy to France for further transfer to Sardinia but restored the pro-Austrian rulers in Central Italy. In fact the treaty was never fulfilled, as the Sardinians who had taken over in Tuscany, Modena and Parma would not relinquish their positions, forming a short-lived Republic of Central Italy, which was annexed by Sardinia proper in 1860. In return for its support France received Savoy and Nice.
An unforeseen result of this was the great impulse it gave to the Italian nationalist Guiseppe Garibaldi, whose Hunters of the Alps had been instrumental in beginning the conflict with Austria but whose origins in Nice left him outraged at the final outcome. The war led directly to Garibaldi's expedition to Sicily and the fall of the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies.
As early as 1859 Emperor Napoléon III ordered the issue of a campaign medal for service in the Franco-Austrian War. The reverse bears the names of the major French successes against the Austrians. This example is unnamed, and it cannot now be known to whom it was awarded. Although this medal is part of the Watson Collection, Lester Watson's own lists give no provenance for it.

Notes

History note: Gift of L. Hoyt Watson; ex Lester Watson Collection, no provenance.

Legal notes

Given by Lester Watson through Cambridge in America, 2009

Measurements and weight

Diameter: 30.7 mm
Weight: 16.24 g

Place(s) associated

  • Colmar

Acquisition and important dates

Method of acquisition: Given (2009) by Watson, Lester

Dating

Production date: AD 1859

Materials used in production

Silver

Techniques used in production

Struck

Inscription or legends present

Inscription present: Bust of Napoleon wreathed facing left, surrounded by laurel wreath

  • Text: NAPOLEON III EMPEREUR
  • Location: Obverse
  • Type: Design

Inscription present: Bound wreath surrounding inscription and central inscription that reads "MONTEBELLO / PALESTRO / TURBIGO / MAGENTA / MARIGNAN / SOLERINO"

  • Location: Reverse
  • Type: Design

References and bibliographic entries

Identification numbers

Accession number: CM.1459-2009
Primary reference Number: 141553
Watson Catalogue: B
Ordering: M-0342
Previous object number: LW.0342
Stable URI

Audit data

Created: Saturday 6 August 2011 Updated: Monday 15 January 2024 Last processed: Monday 15 January 2024

Associated departments & institutions

Owner or interested party: The Fitzwilliam Museum
Associated department: Coins and Medals

Citation for print

This record can be cited in the Harvard Bibliographic style using the text below:

The Fitzwilliam Museum (2024) "Médaille d'Italie" Web page available at: https://data.fitzmuseum.cam.ac.uk/id/object/141553 Accessed: 2024-07-14 22:09:53

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{{cite web|url=https://data.fitzmuseum.cam.ac.uk/id/object/141553 |title=Médaille d'Italie |author=The Fitzwilliam Museum|accessdate=2024-07-14 22:09:53|publisher=The University of Cambridge}}

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