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Pauldrons: HEN.M.10G-1933

Object information

Awaiting location update

Maker(s)

Unknown

Entities

Categories

Description

Pair of pauldrons and vambraces, for heavy or medium cavalry use. Each is formed of a pauldron of seven lames connected by a turner to a vambrace comprised of a tubular upper cannon, a winged bracelet couter of five lames and a tubular lower cannon. The pauldron is formed of seven medially-ridged lames that overlap outwards from the third which is shaped to the point of the shoulder. The first to third lames extend inwards over the chest and back. The third lame is expanded downwards to the level of the bottom of the sixth lames, except at the front of the right pauldron where it does not project beyond the bottom of the fifth lame, allowing a lance to be accommodated at the armpit. The expanded portion has strongly convex inner edges, and is flanged at its outer edge where it overlaps the fourth to sixth lames. The fourth to seventh lames extend only to the inside of the arm. The fourth lame of the left pauldron is restored. The first to third lames are connected to one another at their front and rear ends by modern, round-headed rivets of brass with circular, internal washers. The third to sixth lames are connected to one another and to the turner below them by modern sliding-rivets at the rear and modern internal leathers at the front and centre. The sliding-rivets are of brass-capped, round-headed form with either circular or square internal washers. The leathers are retained by single, externally-flush rivets, except in the case of the third lame where they are now retained by only one or other of a pair of brass-capped, round-headed rivets with square, internal washers. The rivets that connect the central leather to the sixth and seventh lames of the right pauldron and the turner beneath them are also fitted with square, internal washers. The central leather is in each case incorrectly extended beyond the upper edge of the pauldron to which it is attached by the rivet and washer that secures the suspension-buckle. The front ends of the third to seventh lames are decorated with modern brass-capped, round-headed rivets occupying construction-holes aligning with the underlying rivet-holes for the attachment of the front leather. The rivet in the seventh lame now rigidly secures that lame to the turner. The right pauldron is repaired with a riveted internal patch at the front end of the second lame, and at the three lower articulation-points of its third lame. The front ends of the fifth to seventh lames of the right pauldrons are pierced with later holes that at one time served to rivet them directly to one another. The hole in the fifth lame has broken out, the hole in the sixth lame has been filled with solder, and the hole in the seventh lame remains vacant, as does another below and slightly to the outside of it that must at one time have served to connect the seventh lame to the turner. The rear ends of the third and fourth lames of the right pauldron are also pierced with later holes that at one time served to rigidly rivet them directly to one another. The hole in the third lame is now broken out and obscured by a patch, while the hole in the fourth lame remains vacant. The front ends of the second and third lames of the left pauldron are also pierced with later holes that at one time served to rigidly rivet them directly to one another. The hole in the third lame has been filled with solder, while the hole in the second lame remains vacant. Further vacant later holes occur at the front end and between the leathering-points of the fifth lame, and at the lower end of the front flange of the third lame of the left pauldron. A rust-hole at the rear of the third lame of the left pauldron has been filled with solder. The main edges of the first to third lames of each pauldron are bordered by a total of fourteen modern, round-headed lining-rivets of brass with circular internal washers. A later hole pierced just to the rear of the centre of the upper edge of the left pauldron is now occupied by a modern brass-capped, round-headed rivet with a square, internal washer. Secured by a similar rivet and washer at the apex of each shoulder is a modern, double-ended, tongued brass buckle that serves to suspend the pauldron from straps issuing from the collar. The tubular turner of each vambrace has a forward-overlapping join towards the rear of its inside, joined by a single, externally-flush rivet. The right turner is pierced to either side of the join with a later hole now filled with solder. The upper edge of each turner is cut away in a shallow, concave curve at the inside of the arm. The lower edge is bordered by a file-roped, raised rib, the hollowed underside of which locks over and rotates on the outward-flanged upper edge of the upper cannon of the vambrace. The upper cannon is of tubular form with an inward-overlapping join at its rear secured by two externally-flush rivets. Its lower edge is cut away in a concave curve at the inside of the elbow. Each couter is formed of five lames that overlap outwards from the central one which is shaped to the point of the elbow and completely encircles the arm with an inward overlapping join at the rear secured by two externally-flush rivets. The central lame expands to a large wing at its front, and a slightly smaller one at the rear. The lames of the couter are connected to one another and to the upper and lower cannons at their outer ends by modern, round-headed rivets of brass with circular, internal washers. The tapering, tubular lower cannons are in each case formed of an inner and an outer plate: the former fitting within the latter. The plates are connected to one another at the rear by a pair of modern copper hinges secured by round-headed rivets of brass with circular internal washers, and fastened at the front by a modern plain, circular stud riveted midway down the front edge of the inner plate, that engages a corresponding hole in the front edge of the outer plate. The hinges have rounded corners and constricted sides. Pierced a short distance above each of the rivets that retain the hinges of the left lower cannon are later holes that may at one time have retained hinges, but are now vacant. The upper edge of the inner plate of each lower cannon is cut away in a concave curve to clear the inside of the elbow. Part of the composite half armour HEN.M.10A-G-1933

Notes

History note: Mr James Stewart Henderson of 'Abbotsford', Downs Road, St Helen's Park, Hastings, Sussex

Legal notes

J.S. Henderson Bequest

Acquisition and important dates

Method of acquisition: Bequeathed (1933-03-16) by Henderson, James Stewart

Dating

Late 16th Century
Production date: circa AD 1580

Note

All the main edges of the pauldrons and vambraces have roped inward turns. These are accompanied by recessed borders, except at the armpits and the insides of the elbows. Most of the subsidiary edges of the pauldrons and vambraces are decorated with pairs of incised lines. The third lame of each pauldron is decorated with a pair of adorsed, curved flutes that diverge horizontally from the point of the shoulder. The central lame of each couter is decorated with a file-roped, transverse rib that extends from the inside of the wing to just behind the point of the elbow.

North Italian

The pauldrons and vambraces are bright with a light to medium patination overall and some patches of heavier pitting, especially on the pauldrons. Their metal shows some evidence of delamination, especially internally.

Components of the work

Hinges composed of copper ( modern)
Buckles composed of brass (alloy) ( modern)
Internal Leathers composed of leather ( modern)
Rivet Caps composed of brass (alloy) ( some modern)
Right Depth 28.0 cm Height 59.8 cm Weight 20.02 kg Width 20.0 cm
Left Depth 29.2 cm Height 61.5 cm Weight 20.06 kg Width 20.0 cm
Decoration
Parts
Pauldron Lames
Plates
Third Lame, Pauldron

Materials used in production

Steel

Techniques used in production

Hammering : Each is formed of a pauldron of seven lames connected by a turner to a vambrace comprised of a tubular upper cannon, a winged bracelet couter of five lames and a tubular lower cannon; hammered, shaped, riveted, hinged, with incised, fluted and file-roped decoration
Patinating
Forming

Identification numbers

Accession number: HEN.M.10G-1933
Primary reference Number: 17799
Stable URI

Audit data

Created: Saturday 6 August 2011 Updated: Friday 8 January 2016 Last processed: Sunday 21 March 2021

Associated departments & institutions

Owner or interested party: The Fitzwilliam Museum
Associated department: Applied Arts

Citation for print

This record can be cited in the Harvard Bibliographic style using the text below:

The Fitzwilliam Museum (2023) "Pauldrons" Web page available at: https://data.fitzmuseum.cam.ac.uk/id/object/17799 Accessed: 2023-01-31 22:43:49

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{{cite web|url=https://data.fitzmuseum.cam.ac.uk/id/object/17799 |title=Pauldrons |author=The Fitzwilliam Museum|accessdate=2023-01-31 22:43:49|publisher=The University of Cambridge}}

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