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Pauldron: HEN.M.14G-1933

Object information

Current Location: Gallery 31 (Armoury)

Maker(s)

Unknown

Description

Pauldron and vambrace for the right arm, for field use, composed of elements of a similar period and fashion. The pauldron is formed of six medially-ridged lames that overlap outwards from the third which is slightly shaped to the point of the shoulder. The first to third lames extend inwards over the chest and back. The third lame is expanded downwards to the level of the fifth lame at the front, and the level of the sixth lame at the rear. The expanded portions have strongly rounded lower inner corners and are flanged at their outer edges where they overlap the lames beneath them. The fourth to sixth lames extend only to the inside of the arm. The main edges of the pauldron are decorated with file-roped inward turns accompanied by a recessed border. The third lame is embossed in low relief with a pair of adorsed volutes that issue from the border at the front and rear of the armpit. The upper edges of the second and third lames, and the lower edges of the third to sixth lames are decorated medially with V-shaped nicks. The first to third lames are connected to one another by modern round-headed brass rivets at the front, and by brass-capped round-headed rivets with octagonal internal washers at the rear. The rivet that connects the first and second lames to one another at the rear lacks its washer. The third to sixth lames are connected to one another and to the turner beneath them by modern, round-headed sliding-rivets with square or octagonal internal washers at the rear, and by modern internal leathers at the front and centre. The sliding-rivets are of brass, except for that which connects the sixth lame of the pauldron to the turner which is of iron. The leathers are secured by single rivets which are all externally flush, except for those in the third lame which are round-headed . The round-headed rivet that secures the front leather is of solid brass with an octagonal internal washer, while that which secures the central leather is of brass-capped iron with a square internal washer. The central leather was originally secured to the third lame by a pair of rivets. The hole for the rear rivet is now occupied by a functionless, brass-capped, round-headed rivet. The hole for the rivet that secures the central leather to the sixth lame has broken out. The present rivet is therefore located in a later hole pierced just to the rear of the original hole. Construction-holes in the third to sixth lames aligning with the underlying holes for the rivets that secure the front leather are occupied by purely decorative brass-capped, round-headed rivets. A later hole pierced in the first lame, another in the second lame, another in the third lame, four in the fourth lame, one in the fifth lame, four in the sixth lame and two in the turner all served at one time or another to secure the lames to one another when the original connecting-rivets and leathers of the pauldron broke. One of the later holes in the fourth lame, one in the fifth lame, two in the sixth lame and one in the former turner have subsequently been plugged with rivets, while some of the others have been partially closed by hammering. Attached within the apex of the pauldron by a single flat-headed rivet with an octagonal internal washer is a modern leather suspension-strap that engages a modern double-ended, tongued iron buckle attached just below it, but externally, by a round-headed brass rivet with a circular internal washer. The buckle has rectangular loops and a rectangular hasp with cropped corners.
The vambrace is formed of a tubular upper cannon with a turner, a one-piece bracelet couter, and a tubular lower cannon. The tubular turner has an inward-overlapping join at the rear, secured by two externally-flush rivets. Its upper edge is cut away in a shallow, concave curve at the inside of the arm, while its lower edge is bordered by a raised rib, the hollowed underside of which locks over and rotates on the outward-flanged upper edge of the upper cannon of the vambrace. The upper cannon is of tubular form with an inward-overlapping join at the rear secured by two externally-flush rivets. Its lower edge has a file-roped, partial inward turn at the inside of the elbow where it is cut away in a concave curve. The one-piece couter, which is strongly shaped to the point of the elbow completely encircles the arm. It has an inward-overlapping join at the rear, secured by three externally-flush rivets. It expands to a large wing at the front, and a considerably smaller wing at the rear. The upper and lower edges of the couter have file-roped inward turns accompanied, on the front wing and around the inside of the elbow, by a recessed border. The couter is decorated medially with a file-roped raised rib that runs from just behind the point of the elbow to the inside of the elbow at the front, and is enclosed by a pair of grooves. The couter is connected to the upper and lower cannons by modern internal leathers at the front and the rear. The front leather is secured to the couter by a pair of round-headed rivets of brass fitted with circular external washers of brass and square internal washers of iron. The rear leather is secured to the couter by a single externally-flush rivet. Both the front and rear leathers are secured to the upper and lower cannons by single externally-flush rivets with protruding, large, internal heads that button through slits cut in the leathers. The rivets have flat heads, except for that at the front of the upper cannon which has a round head. The upper and lower edges of the couter are pierced just to the outside of the front wing with later wiring-holes that have subsequently been plugged with externally-flush rivets. The tapering, tubular lower cannon is formed of an inner and an outer plate: the former fitting within the latter. The plates are connected to one another at the rear by a pair of external hinges, and fastened at the front by a modern, plain, circular stud riveted midway down the centre of the front edge of the inner plate that engages a corresponding hole in the front edge of the outer plate. The hinges are secured at either end by single, externally-flush rivets, and are slightly shaped around the rivets at each side. The upper edge of the lower cannon has a file-roped, inward turn accompanied by a recessed border at the inside of the elbow where it is cut away in a concave curve. The lower edge of the lower cannon also has a file-roped inward turn accompanied by a recessed border. The edge is crudely pierced at the inside the wrist with a modern wiring-hole for the suspension of gauntlets. A modern hole pierced midway down the inside of the lower cannon probably served the same purpose. It has subsequently been plugged with an externally-flush rivet. Part of the composite armour HEN.M.14A-L-1933.

Notes

History note: Mr James Stewart Henderson of 'Abbotsford', Downs Road, St Helen's Park, Hastings, Sussex.

Legal notes

J.S. Henderson Bequest

Measurements and weight

Depth: 31.3 cm
Height: 60 cm
Weight: 1.81 kg
Width: 19.2 cm

Relative size of this object

19.2 cm60 cm31.3 cm What does this represent?

Relative size of this object is displayed using code inspired by Good Form and Spectacle's work on the British Museum's Waddeson Bequest website and their dimension drawer. They chose a tennis ball to represent a universally sized object, from which you could envisage the size of an object.

Acquisition and important dates

Method of acquisition: Bequeathed (1933-03-16) by Henderson, James Stewart

Dating

Late 16th Century
Circa 1570 - 1580

Note

North Italian

The bolder roping of the couter and lower cannon indicate that they are associated with the pauldron and upper cannon. Slight differences in their roping and in the quality of their workmanship suggest that the couter and the lower cannon are also associated with one another.

The pauldron and vambrace are bright with a light to medium patination overall.

Components of the work

Sliding-rivets composed of brass (alloy) ( all brass except one which connects the sixth lame of the pauldron to the turner) Sliding-rivet composed of iron (metal) ( connects the sixth lame of the pauldron to the turner) Buckles composed of iron (metal) ( modern) Suspension-strap composed of leather ( modern) Internal Washers composed of iron (metal) ( of the couter) External Washers composed of brass (alloy) ( of the couter) Leathers composed of leather ( some modern) Rivets composed of iron (metal) brass (alloy) Rivet Caps composed of brass (alloy) Borders Decoration Lower Cannon Parts Pauldron 3rd Lame Pauldron Lames Turner, Couter

Materials used in production

Steel

Techniques used in production

Hammering : The pauldron is formed of six medially-ridged lames that overlap outwards from the third which is slightly shaped to the point of the shoulder; the vambrace is formed of a tubular upper cannon with a turner, a one-piece bracelet couter, and a tubular lower cannon, with externally hinged plates; hammered, shaped, riveted, decorated with recessed borders, raised ribs, incised lines, V-shaped nicks, file-roping and embossing
Patinating Forming

Identification numbers

Accession number: HEN.M.14G-1933
Primary reference Number: 17911
Stable URI

Audit data

Created: Saturday 6 August 2011 Updated: Monday 30 November 2020 Last processed: Sunday 21 March 2021

Associated departments & institutions

Owner or interested party: The Fitzwilliam Museum
Associated department: Applied Arts

Citation for print

This record can be cited in the Harvard Bibliographic style using the text below:

The Fitzwilliam Museum (2022) "Pauldron" Web page available at: https://data.fitzmuseum.cam.ac.uk/id/object/17911 Accessed: 2022-08-15 13:39:21

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{{cite web|url=https://data.fitzmuseum.cam.ac.uk/id/object/17911 |title=Pauldron |author=The Fitzwilliam Museum|accessdate=2022-08-15 13:39:21|publisher=The University of Cambridge}}

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